Best time to visit Turkmenistan and other Central Asia countries

Best time to visit Turkmenistan and other Central Asia countries

Spring and autumn seasons considered as the best time to visit Turkmenistan and other countries of Central Asia region. But it depends on where you plan to go and what activities you wish to do there. The most part of Turkmenistan has a cold desert climate with very hot, dry summers and cool, short winters. Rains here usually occur in spring and autumn.

To visit the most popular nature and historical sights of Turkmenistan, such as the flaming crater of Davraza, also known as the “Gate of Hell”, Karakum Desert, Dinosaur plateau, Yangykala Canyon, Old Nisa and other ancient cities, it is better to go there in spring or autumn.

In the first half of the year, the most favorable months are from March to June. In the second half of the year, the best time to travel to Turkmenistan are September, October and November. During the winter months, the weather here can be very cold, and heavy snowfalls are possible in mountainous areas. July and August normally are hot, sometimes extremely, especially in the Karakum desert.

Yangikala Canyon

Climate of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan, a country located in Central Asia, boasts a climate that reflects its diverse geographical features and unique position within the region. From scorching deserts to frigid winters, Turkmenistan experiences a range of climatic conditions. Now we will tell you about the fascinating climate of Turkmenistan and the factors that contribute to its distinct weather patterns.

Arid Desert Climate

The majority of Turkmenistan’s territory is covered by expansive deserts, such as the Karakum Desert. This arid climate prevails throughout the country, with hot and dry summers and mild winters. During summer, temperatures can soar above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit), making it one of the hottest regions in the world. Precipitation in these areas is limited, and droughts are not uncommon.

Continental Climate

Turkmenistan experiences a continental climate due to its inland location, away from large bodies of water. This results in significant temperature variations between seasons and even within a single day. Summers are characterized by hot days and cooler nights, while winters are cold, with temperatures often dropping below freezing. The continental climate contributes to Turkmenistan’s harsh winter conditions.

Influence of the Karakum Desert

The Karakum Desert plays a crucial role in shaping Turkmenistan’s climate. As one of the largest sand deserts globally, it generates unique atmospheric conditions. The desert’s vast expanse absorbs heat during the day, causing air to rise and creating low-pressure systems. This leads to winds blowing from the desert towards neighboring regions, influencing the overall weather patterns in Turkmenistan.

Precipitation Patterns

Turkmenistan receives relatively low levels of precipitation throughout the year. Most of the rainfall occurs during the winter and early spring months. However, even during these periods, the amount of rainfall is generally low, averaging around 100-300 millimeters (4-12 inches) annually. Some areas in the northern mountains may receive slightly higher precipitation due to their elevation and proximity to moisture sources.

Seasonal Changes

Turkmenistan experiences distinct seasonal changes, with each season offering a unique climate experience. Spring brings milder temperatures and occasional rainfall, with nature coming to life as vegetation blooms across the countryside. Summers are hot and dry, while autumn offers pleasant weather, with cooler temperatures and calm winds. Winters, especially in northern areas, can be bitterly cold, with snowfall and freezing temperatures.

The climate of the central Turkmenistan on the example of Ashgabat

Almost any trip to Turkmenistan starts from Ashgabat. The table below shows the data of long-term observations of climatic conditions in the capital of the country. You can choose the best time to visit the city and its surroundings.

Month Abs. min Avg. min Avg. Avg. max Abs. max
January -24.1 (1969) -0.1 +3.9 +9.0 +27.8 (1968)
February -20.8 (1969) +1.3 +5.7 +11.1 +32.6 (2004)
March -13.3 (1954) +6.0 +11.1 +17.0 +38.6 (2010)
April -0.8 (1956) +11.8 +17.6 +23.9 +39.6 (2015)
May +1.3 (1989) +17.5 +24.1 +30.5 +45.6 (2021)
June +9.2 (1970) +22.3 +29.6 +36.2 +47.2 (2015)
July +13.8 (1963) +24.5 +31.7 +38.4 +46.8 (2021)
August +9.5 (1996) +22.4 +30.0 +37.2 +45.7 (2011)
September +2.0 (1973) +17.1 +24.3 +31.8 +45.4 (1990)
October -5.0 (1953) +10.8 +17.1 +24.4 +40.1 (1969)
November -13.1 (1944) +5.0 +9.7 +15.7 +35.0 (2006)
December -18.9 (1948) +1.1 +5.0 +9.8 +33.1 (1998)

Data source: (Rus)

Seasons in Turkmenistan


In Turkmenistan, spring brings a refreshing change after the cold winter months. As the temperatures begin to rise, nature awakens, and the country’s landscapes transform into vibrant and picturesque scenes.

Kopetdag mountains in early spring

During spring in Turkmenistan, the weather gradually becomes milder and more pleasant. The harsh winter chill gives way to warmer days and cooler nights, creating a comfortable and enjoyable atmosphere. The average temperatures during spring range from around 15 to 25 degrees Celsius (59 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit), making it an ideal time to explore the country’s natural wonders and cultural sites.

One of the notable features of spring in Turkmenistan is the occasional rainfall. While the country generally receives limited precipitation throughout the year, spring brings some welcome showers. These rain showers provide nourishment to the flora and fauna, resulting in a burst of greenery and blooming flowers across the landscapes. The sight of colorful wildflowers dotting the meadows and valleys is truly enchanting.

Spring is also a season of transition in Turkmenistan. As the snow melts in the mountains, the rivers swell with fresh water, creating opportunities for outdoor activities such as hiking, picnicking, and fishing. The natural beauty of Turkmenistan’s mountains, such as the Kopet Dag range, is particularly captivating during this time, with lush vegetation and cascading waterfalls.

Spring in Turkmenistan offers a delightful and rejuvenating experience. With milder temperatures, occasional showers, and blooming landscapes, it is an ideal time to explore the country’s natural beauty and immerse yourself in its vibrant culture. Whether you choose to embark on outdoor adventures or witness the festivities, Turkmenistan in spring is sure to leave you with unforgettable memories.


Summer in Turkmenistan is a season of intense heat and arid conditions. As the sun shines brightly in the sky, temperatures soar, making it one of the hottest periods of the year. The scorching summer days create an atmosphere that is both challenging and unique.

Turkmenistan camels

During the summer months, temperatures in Turkmenistan can climb well above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit), especially in the desert regions such as the Karakum Desert. The relentless heat can be quite intense, and it is important to take precautions to stay hydrated and protected from the sun’s rays.

The arid climate of Turkmenistan means that rainfall during the summer is limited. The country experiences very low levels of precipitation during this time, with most areas receiving only a few millimeters of rainfall, if any at all. This lack of rain contributes to the dryness of the environment and the prevalence of desert landscapes.

Despite the challenging heat, summer in Turkmenistan does offer some opportunities for outdoor activities. The Caspian Sea coast provides a respite from the scorching temperatures, with its moderate coastal climate and the chance to enjoy water-based activities. The sea breeze offers a refreshing escape from the inland heat, attracting both locals and tourists seeking relief.

Additionally, summer is a time of harvest and agricultural activities in Turkmenistan. The fertile lands along the rivers and oases provide the necessary conditions for farming. The countryside comes alive with the cultivation of crops, such as cotton, melons, and wheat, contributing to the country’s agricultural economy.

Summer in Turkmenistan is characterized by extreme heat and aridity. It is a season when precautions should be taken to stay cool and hydrated. While the weather may limit some outdoor activities, there are still opportunities to enjoy the coastal areas and witness the agricultural activities that take place during this time. Despite the heat, summer in Turkmenistan offers a glimpse into the country’s unique climate and cultural richness.


Autumn in Turkmenistan brings a welcome relief from the scorching heat of summer. As the temperatures gradually begin to cool, the landscapes of the country undergo a beautiful transformation, painting the scenery with vibrant hues of red, orange, and gold.

Autumn in Turkmenistan

During autumn, Turkmenistan experiences mild and pleasant weather. The intense heat of summer gives way to more comfortable temperatures, ranging from around 15 to 25 degrees Celsius (59 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit). The days become shorter, and the nights start to become cooler, creating a pleasant atmosphere for outdoor activities and exploration.

One of the highlights of autumn in Turkmenistan is the captivating display of fall foliage. The deciduous trees across the country shed their leaves, creating a stunning tapestry of colors. The mountains, such as the Kopet Dag range, and the parks and gardens come alive with shades of red, orange, and yellow, providing a picturesque backdrop for nature lovers and photographers.

Autumn is also a time of harvest and abundance in Turkmenistan. Agricultural activities are in full swing as farmers gather the fruits of their labor. Fields are brimming with ripened crops, such as cotton, grapes, pomegranates, and various vegetables. The local markets are filled with fresh produce, offering a taste of the season’s bounty.

Moreover, autumn in Turkmenistan is a time when cultural festivals and events take place. These celebrations showcase the country’s diverse traditions and customs. Folk dances, music performances, and traditional games are organized, providing an opportunity to experience the rich cultural heritage of the region.

Autumn is also an one of the to best seasons for exploring Turkmenistan’s natural attractions. The moderate temperatures make hiking and outdoor activities more enjoyable. It is a great time to visit national parks, nature reserves, and historical sites, where you can admire the stunning landscapes and immerse yourself in the country’s history and natural beauty.


During winter, Turkmenistan experiences cold weather, especially in the northern regions and mountainous areas. Temperatures can drop below freezing, with averages ranging from around 0 to 10 degrees Celsius (32 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit). The country’s continental climate intensifies the winter conditions, bringing frosty mornings and cool, crisp air.

Winter in Ashgabat

Snowfall is not uncommon during winter in Turkmenistan, particularly in the higher elevations. The mountainous regions, such as the Kopet Dag and the southeastern part of the country, are covered in a blanket of snow, creating picturesque scenes and opportunities for winter sports enthusiasts.

Winter is not very popular season for visiting in Turkmenistan. But at that time you can explore popular attractions with fewer crowds. Historical sites, such as the ancient ruins of Nisa or the UNESCO-listed city of Merv, take on a serene and peaceful ambiance, allowing visitors to delve into the country’s history and architectural wonders.

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